Byte per Inode Performance

On HDD how the byte per Inode format is important for the performance ?

Which i the best value for a 10TB or less HDD ?

4k, 8k, 16k, 32k, 64k ?

depends more on the filesystem i believe… but ill assume you are on zfs since you are throwing around cluster scale blocksizes.

usually hardware today is 512e, 4kn or even 8kn
your blocks size or whatever one wants to call it will yield the highest io performance if its the lowest possible blocksize the device will write…

in some filesystem 1 file is equal to 1 sector or block / logical block or more… that means that the smallest file you would be able to write is such a block, no matter how small the file is.

it seems ssd’s are slightly indifferent to what blocksizes they are running, not totally tho…

for hdd’s it can significantly reduce throughput with smaller blocksizes, while larger blocksizes gives you more throughput, but files will be larger and thus on a system like NTFS you would reduce the number of possible files / inodes… i think

some file systems have difficulty dealing with millions and millions of inodes, others like zfs keeps track of its files differently, something like a database of where the files are located in sectors… so roughly put it can store 2 files in what represents 1 inode on NTFS

it gets really confusing… for best possible IO you need to need to work in blocks that are the smallest possible blocks your storage device can use… but that doesn’t solve all problems, you can end up configuring yourself into many other bottlenecks…

what filesystem are you planing to use? and i assume the device will be used for a storagenode…
what operating system are you using?

I’m using EXT4 on QNAP on single 10TB HDD, during the volume creating I need to define the size of the cluster

ReFS ?
Win Server 2019

your disk most likely supports 4k doubt there would be much advantage to go beyond that… tho it may save a bit of RAM when using higher blocksizes, but it would most likely also amplify the database IO.
so i would set it to 4k… but not totally sure… if there is some special consideration with QNAP

but 4k should be a good choice for 90% of all workloads